Ashley, Staging of cancer is an odd and confusing thing. Carm explains it well so I don't have to cover that. I can give you some information on prognosis and what may happen to him. Part of the reason the Dr may not wat to give much on prtognosis is that it is noramlly assumed that if the cancer has spread beyond locally that it is in places they can't yet see. This may or may not be true but in either case it is not a death scentance and it can easily be treated. You also need to know that any data on prognisis is at least 5 years old and lots of good things have happened in the past 5 years. I pwersonally have had tree drugs and two surgeries that were not available when I was first diagnosed so thihngs change fast.
If he was onlot diaghnosed only 14 days ago I assume that he has not had surgery yet but has had CT and PET scans and that is how the suspecious lymph node out of the region was found. You should also know that CT scans only see differences in tissue density and PET scans only see metabilic activity and that there are things that are not cancer that can look like cancer on these scans so if it is possible then a biopsy of the suspected lymph node is probably a good idea to be sure it is cancer.
If it is only in one lymph node at one location then they may want to remove it along with the primary cancer in the colon. In any case he lis likely to get chemo to go after any cancer that may not yet be detectable but may have snuck out of the other locations. Chemo isn't any fun but is it easliy survivable and there are lots of chemo options for colon cancer so if one does not work another will.
Overall there is no reason that he should not live a long and comfortable life. It also soujnds to me like you and your dad need to learn a little more about what questions to ask the Drs and how to get them to provide answers you need. This is something that all cancer patients and thier families have to learn, I know I am still learning about cancer and I have been at it for quite some time. You should start by getting a complete description of the cancer, where it has been located, how it was discovered and how the Dr plan to treat it. If you do decide to get a sceond opinion you may want to get one from a Dr associated with a research hospital or clinic as they will know more about and have better access to the latest treatments.
If you have any more questions that I can help with just let me know. Good Luck